Long-Term Mild Exercise (ME), such as #running, increases #Adult_Hippocampal_Neurogenesis (AHN) and changes the Transcriptome cells of the Hippocampus
Long-term mild exercise improves (spatial) memory and improves the efficiency of cell function.
Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis AHN explained:
The hippocampus is significant in the formation of (new) long-term memories and special navigation. Aspects of memory are enhanced with long-term mild exercise (ME).
“Exercise increases adult hippocampal neurogenesis (AHN)…that is a continuous production of new neurons in the hippocampal dentate gyrus…and furthermore, exercise-enhanced AHN is considered an important cellular substrate for the development of hippocampal function”, (Graves, A. R., Moore, S. J., Bloss, E. B., Mensh, B. D., Kath, W. L., & Spruston, N., 2012).
Neurogenesis in the hippocampus is the growth and development of new pyramidal neurons (cells).The process of neurogenesis is experience-dependent. It’s instigated by new learning and experiences, also referred to as experience-dependent plasticity (neuroplasticity). The experience of long-term running promotes neurogenesis. The BDNF up-regulation following the exercise enhances the AHN.
“The hippocampus is the cradle of cognition—a brain structure critically involved in the formation, organization, and retrieval of new memories. The principal cell type in this region is the excitatory pyramidal neuron…” (Graves, A. R., et. al., 2012).
Researchers Inoue, K., Okamoto, M., Shibato, J., Lee, M. C., Matsui, T., Rakwal, R., & Soya, H. (2015) discovered that “…treadmill running training with minimizing running stress is effective in enhancing AHN…”, p. 19. Additionally, “…ME improves spatial memory without the influence of the exercise stress that accompanies IE”, p. 11.
Changes in the Transcriptome Cells:
Exercise-induced DNA changes occur in the hippocampus. Specifically, the DNA analysis showed that ME altered these AHN regulators: lipid metabolism, protein synthesis and inflammatory response. ME significantly enhanced cell survival and neuronal maturation (Inoue, K., et. al., 2015),
Bruel-Jungerman, E., Rampon, C., & Laroche, S. (2007). Adult hippocampal neurogenesis, synaptic plasticity and memory: facts and hypotheses. Reviews in the Neurosciences. Volume 18;2, pp: 93-114.
Graves, A. R., Moore, S. J., Bloss, E. B., Mensh, B. D., Kath, W. L., & Spruston, N. (2012). Hippocampal pyramidal neurons comprise two distinct cell types that are countermodulated by metabotropic receptors. Neuron, 76(4), 776–789. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2012.09.036
Inoue, K., Okamoto, M., Shibato, J., Lee, M. C., Matsui, T., Rakwal, R., & Soya, H. (2015). Long-term mild, rather than intense, exercise enhances adult hippocampal neurogenesis and greatly changes the transcriptomic profile of the hippocampus. PloS one. Volume 10;6, e0128720, pp: 1-25. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0128720.
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